Bindery term, two or more parallel folds which open like an accordion. (For more information on folds, please refer to Folding Techniques Menu under Print Workshop.)

A sizes Main series of finished printing trimmed sizes in the ISO international paper size range. (For more information on sizing, please refer to Paper Sizes Menu under Print Workshop)
Accordion fold Typically accordian folds are simple zig-zag folds with 6-panels and two parallel folds that go in opposite directions. Each panel of the accordian fold is about the same size.

Acetate - a transparent sheet placed over artwork allowing the artist to write instructions or indicate where second colour is to be placed.
Addendum - supplementary material additional to the main body of a book and printed separately at the start or end of the text.
Adhesive binding - style of threadless binding in which the leaves of a book are held together at the binding edge by glue or synthetic adhesive and suitable lining
ADSL - Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line. A service offering a faster internet connection than a standard dial-up or ISDN connection.
Air (US) - an amount of white space in a layout.
Airbrush - a mechanical painting tool producing an adjustable spray of paint driven by compressed air. Used in illustration design and photographic retouching.
Align - quotient of the grammage of a paper and it's thickness in micrometers.
Alphabet (length or width) - the measurement of a complete set of lower case alphabet characters in a given type size expressed in points or picas.
Anodised plate - an offset printing plate with a specially treated surface to reduce wear during printing.
Art Paper - a smooth coated paper obtained by adding a coating of china clay compound on one or both sides of the paper.
ASCII - American Standard Code for Information Interchange. This is a standard coding system within the computer industry to convert keyboard input into digital information. It covers all of the printable characters in normal use and control characters such as carriage return and line feed. The full table contains 127 elements. Variations and extensions of the basic code are to be found in special applications.
Authors corrections - changes made to the copy by the author after typesetting but not including those made as a result of errors in keying in the copy.
B sizes - ISO International sizes intended primarily for posters, wall charts and similar items where difference in size of the larger sheets in the A series represents too large a gap. (For more information on sizing, please refer to Paper Sizes ).
Back - The back of a book is the binding edge. To back a book is to shape the back of a previously rounded book, so as to make a shoulder on either side against which the front and back covers fit closely.
Backing up - to print the second side of printed sheet.
Bank - a lightweight writing paper.
Base artwork - artwork requiring additional components such as halftones or line drawings to be added before the reproduction stage.
Baseline - the line on which the bases of capital letters sit.
Bed - the base on which the Form is held when printing by Letterpress.
Binding - the various methods used to secure loose leaves or sections in a book; eg saddle-stitch, perfect bound.
Bitmap - an image arranged accordingly to bit location in columns. Resolution of a PostScript file processed through a RIP will have a bitmap image with the characteristics and resolution of the particular output device (for example, laser printer at 300 upto 1200dpi, imagesetters at 1270dpi upto 5080dpi).
Blanket cylinder - the cylinder via which the inked litho plate transfers the image to the paper. The cylinder is covered with a rubber sheet which prevents wear to the litho plate coming into contact with the paper.
Bleed - layout, type or pictures that extend beyond the trim marks on a page. Illustrations that spread to the edge of the paper without margins are referred to as 'bled off'.
Blind - term applied to a litho plate which has lost its image; also to book covers which are blocked or stamped without the use of ink or metallic effect.
Blind emboss - a raised impression made without using ink or foil.
Blister packaging - method of packaging in which an object is placed in a pre-formed, clear plastic tray and backed by a printed card.
Block - in binding, to impress or stamp a design upon the cover. The design can be blocked in coloured inks, gold leaf or metal foil (see blind). In printing, a letterpress block is the etched copper or zinc plate, mounted on wood or metal from which an illustration is printed.
Block in - to sketch in the main areas of an image prior to the design.
Blurb - a short description or commentary of a book or author on a book jacket.
Board - paper of more than 200gsm.
Body (US) - the main text of the work but not including headlines.
Body size - the height of the type measured from the top of the tallest ascender to the bottom of the lowest descender. Normally given in points, the standard unit of type size.
Bond - a sized finished writing paper of 50gsm or more. Can also be used for printing upon.
Bound Book - a book in which the boards of the cover have first been attached to it, the covering of leather, cloth, or other materials being then affixed to the boards. Bound books are more expensive to produce and much stronger than cased books.
Box - a section of text marked off by rules or white space and presented separately from the main text and illustrations. Longer boxed sections in magazines are sometimes referred to as sidebars.
Bristol board - a fine board made in various qualities for drawing.
Broadsheet - any sheet in its basic size (not folded or cut); also denotes a newspaper size.
Broadside - an original term for work printed on one side of a large sheet of paper.
Bromide - a photographic paper used in graphic reproduction, phototypesetting on which a photographic image is created.
Bronzing - an effect produced by dusting wet ink after printing with a metallic powder.
Bulk - relative thickness of a sheet or sheets, for example, a bulky paper and a thin paper both of the same weight display different "bulk".
Burst binding - a type of adhesive binding in which the back of the book block is not sawn off but is slit in place to allow glue to penetrate.
C sizes - the C series within the ISO International paper sizes range which is mainly used for envelopes or folders suitable for enclosing stationary in the A series.
Calendered finish - produced by passing paper through a series of metal rollers to give a very smooth surface.
Caliper - is the thickness of a single sheet. The results are expressed in microns, 1000 microns equals 1 millimetre. The instrument used is the Micrometer.
Camera ready - artwork or pasted up material that is ready for reproduction.
Carbonless - paper coated with chemicals and dye which will produce copies without carbon paper. Also referred to as NCR (No Carbon Required).
Cartridge - a thick general purpose paper used for printing, drawing and wrapping.
Case binding - the binding of printing books, which include leather, cloth and other forms of covering.
Cast coated - art paper with an exceptionally glossy coated finish usually on one side only.
Cast off - a calculation determining how much space copy will take up when typeset.
Catchline - a temporary headline for identification on the top of a galley proof.
Chalking - a powdering effect left on the surface of the paper after the ink has failed to dry satisfactorily due to a fault in printing.
Character count - the number of characters; ie letters, figures, signs or spaces in a piece of copy, line or paragraph used as a first stage in type calculations.
Chase - a metal frame in which metal type and blocks (engravings) are locked into position to make up a page.
Cheque Paper - chemically treated in order to betray any tampering with the writing on the cheques.
Coated - printing papers which after making have had a surface coating with clay etc, to give a smoother, more even finish with greater opacity.
Cold type - type produced without the use of characters cast from molten metal, such as on a VDU.
Collate - to gather separate sections (or leaves of a book) together in the correct order (for binding).
Colour proofing - this term describes a wide range of techniques which have been developed to reproduce full colour images from film or digital data available, prior to the actual print run; thus allowing the client, colour separation house and printer to view the "proofed" result, prior to the actual print run.
Colour separations - the pision of a multi-coloured original or line copy into the basic (or primary) process colours of yellow, magenta, cyan and black. These should not be confused with the optical primaries; red, green and blue.
Column inch - a measure of area used in newspapers and magazines to calculate the cost of display advertising. A column inch is one column wide by one inch deep.
Column rule - a light faced vertical rule used to separate columns of type.
Concertina fold - a method of folding in which each fold opens in the opposite direction to its neighbour, giving a concertina or pleated effect. (For more information on folds, please refer to Folding Techniques Menu under Print Workshop.)
Continuous tone - an image in which the subject has continuous shades of colour or grey without being broken up by dots. Continuous tones cannot be reproduced in that form for printing but must be screened to translate the image into dots.
Contract proof - a coloured, hard copy representation of the printed image, made from the films, or digital data, which will be used to make the final printing plates. The word "contract" comes from the fact that, when signed by the client, a contract is formed, which states that the final printed job should be a close match to the contract proof.
Copyright - the right of copyright gives protection to the originator of material to prevent use without express permission or acknowledgement of the originator.
Corner marks - marks printed on a sheet to indicate the trim or register marks.
Cropping - the elimination of parts of a photograph or other original that are not required to be printed. Cropping allows the remaining parts of the image to be enlarged to fill the space.
Cross head - a heading set in the body of the text used to break it into easily readable sections.
Cursive - used to describe typefaces that resemble written script.
Cut flush - a method of trimming a book after the cover has been attached to the pages.
Cut-in index - style of index in which the pisions are cut into the edge of the book in steps: step index.
Cyan - one of four standard process colours. The blue colour.
Dagger and double dagger - symbols used mainly as reference marks for footnotes.
Densitometer - a device for measuring the closeness of substance at a specific location on film or printed product, either by reflected or transmitted light. Densitometers vary in their sophistication and the number of features provided, such colour, black-and-white, read-out memory, computer printout etc.
Desktop publishing - a generic title given to the introduction of personal computers (PC) to typesetting, page composition and image handling. The combination of all these gives electronic control within a single system of what was traditionally a specialist and segmented operation.
Die - a hardened steel engraving stamp used to print an inked image. Used in the production of good quality letter headings.
Digital - describes the use of digital pulses, signals or values to represent data in computer graphics, telecommunications systems and word processing.
Digital page composition - DPC, also known as EPCS (electronic page composition system) or CEPS (colour electronic page system). A system designed to take a range of page elements (text, line-work and images) and integrate them into a user-specified format. Image and text input to the system arrive on magnetic tape, by direct system interconnection or directly from an input scanning system.
Display type - larger type used for headings etc. Normally about 18 point or larger.
Dot matrix printer - a printer in which each character is formed from a matrix of dots. They are normally impact systems, ie a wire is fired at a ribbon in order to leave an inked dot on the page, but thermal and electro-erosion systems are also used.
Double density - a method of recording on floppy disks using a modified frequency modulation process that allows more data to be stored on a disk.
Double page spread - two facing pages of newspaper or magazine where the textual material on the left hand side continues across to the right hand side. Abbreviated to DPS.
Downloadable fonts - type faces which can be stored on a disk and then downloaded to the printer when required for printing. These are, by definition, bit-mapped fonts and, therefore, fixed in size and style.
DPI (Dots Per Inch) - the measurement of resolution for page printers, phototypesetting machines and graphics screens. The greater the DPI, the finer the print.
Drawn on - a method of binding a paper cover to a book by drawing the cover on and gluing to the back of the book.
Drawn-on cover - A paper book cover which is attached to the sewn book by gluing the spine. Drop cap - a large initial letter at the start of the text that drops into the line or lines of text below.
Dry transfer (lettering) - Characters, drawings, etc, that can be transferred to the artwork by rubbing them off the back of the transfer sheet. Best known is Letraset.
Dummy - A sample of a proposed job made up with the actual materials and cut to correct size to show bulk, style of binding, etc. Also a complete layout of a job showing position of type matter and illustrations, margins etc.
Duotone - a halftone picture made up of two printed colours.
Duplex Cutting - operation of converting a web paper into sheets on a cutting machine equipped with two cross-cut knives so that two different lengths of sheet can be cut simultaneously.
Eight sheet - Eight sheet - a poster measuring 60 x 80in (153 x 203cm) and, traditionally, made up of eight inpidual sheets.
Electronic Publishing - a generic term for the distribution of information which is stored, transmitted and reproduced electronically. Teletext and Videotext are two examples of this technology in its purest form, ie no paper. Desktop publishing forms just one part of the electronic publishing market.
Embossing - The process of raising, by an un-inked block, letters or designs on card or strong paper.
End papers -the four page leaves at the front and end of a book which are pasted to the insides of the front and back covers (boards).
Eye Mark - a printed line or block at the edge of a printed reel highlighting print repeat. Used to trigger a 'magic eye' on converting machinery.
Expanded type - a typeface with a slightly wider body giving a flatter appearance.
Fanfold - Continuous stationery, typically used for computer print-outs and invoices. Holes running down both sides allow the use of pin or tractor feeds.
Filler - extra material used to complete a column or page, usually of little importance.
Flag - the designed title of a newspaper as it appears at the top of page one.
Flexography - a rotary letterpress process printing from rubber or flexible plates and using fast drying inks. Mainly used for packaging.
Floating accent - an accent mark which is set separately from the main character and is then placed either over or under it.
Flush left - copy aligned along the left margin. Flush right - copy aligned along the right margin. Flyer - an inexpensively produced circular used for promotional distribution. Foil blocking - a process for stamping a design on a book cover without ink by using a coloured foil with pressure from a heated die or block. Font (or fount) - a complete set of characters in a typeface. Four colour process - printing in full colour using four colour separation negatives - yellow, magenta, cyan and black. French fold - a sheet which has been printed on one side only and then folded with two right angle folds to form a four page uncut section. g/m2 - Abbreviation of grams per metre. A method of indicating the substance of paper or board (whatever the size of the paper/board or number of sheets in the package) on the basis of weight in grams per square metre. Galley proof - proofs taken from the galleys before being made up into pages. Galleys - the printing term for long metal trays used to hold type after it had been set and before the press run. Gatefold - an oversize page where both sides fold into the gutter in overlapping layers. Used to accommodate maps into books. (For more information on folds, please refer to Folding Techniques Menu under Print Workshop) Gathering - the operation of inserting the printed pages, sections or signatures of a book in the correct order for binding. GEM - Digital Research's Graphics Environment Manager. A graphical interface designed both to make the operation of software simpler for the non-expert and to allow programs to communicate with one another. Two key desktop publishing packages, Ventura and DR's own GEM Desktop Publisher operate under this environment. Ghosting - a faint printed image that appears on a printed sheet where it was not intended. More often than not this problem is a function of graphical design. It is hard to tell when or where ghosting will occur. Sometimes the problem can be seen developing immediately after printing the sheet, other times the problem occurs while drying. However the problem occurs it is sometimes costly to fix, if it can be fixed. Occasionally it can be eliminated by changing the colour sequence, the inks, the paper, changing to a press with a drier, printing the problem area in a separate pass through the press or changing the racking (reducing the number of sheets on the drying racks). Gloss ink - for use in litho and letterpress printing on coated papers where the ink will dry without penetration. Golden ratio - the rule devised to give proportions of height to width when laying out text and illustrations to produce the most optically pleasing result. Grain - the direction in which the paper fibre lie. Gravure - a rotary printing process where the image is etched into the metal plate attached to a cylinder. The cylinder is then rotated through a trough of printing ink after which the etched surface is wiped clean by a blade leaving the non-image area clean. The paper is then passed between two rollers and pressed against the etched cylinder drawing the ink out by absorption. Greeking - a software device where areas of grey are used to simulate lines of text. One of desktop publishing's less clever methods of getting round the slowness of high resolution displays on the PC. Grey scale - a range of luminance values for evaluating shading through white to black. Frequently used in discussions about scanners as a measure of their ability to capture halftone images. Basically the more levels the better but with correspondingly larger memory requirements. Grid - A systematic pision of a page into areas to enable designers to ensure consistency. The grid acts as a measuring guide and shows text, illustrations and trim sizes. Gripper - device on a printing machine for holding the sheet during the printing or finishing process. GSM - Grams per square metre. The unit of measurement for paper weight. Guard - a narrow strip of paper or linen pasted to a single leaf to allow sewing into a section for binding. Gutter - the central blank area between left and right pages. Hairline rule - the thinnest rule that can be printed. Hairlines - the thinnest of the strokes in a typeface. Half up - artwork one and a half times the size which it will be reproduced. Halftone - an illustration reproduced by breaking down the original tone into a pattern of dots of varying size. Light areas have small dots and darker areas or shadows have larger dots. Halftone screen - a glass plate or film placed between the original photograph and the film to be exposed. The screen carries a network of parallel lines. The number of lines to the inch controls the coarseness of the final dot formation. The screen used depends on the printing process and the paper to be used, the higher the quality the more lines can be used. Hanging punctuation - punctuation that is allowed to fall outside the margins instead of staying within the measure of the text. Hardback - a case bound book with a separate stiff board cover. Heat-set drying - Drying a web or sheet of paper or board by passing it through a drying unit which forms part of the machine. Special heat-setting inks have to be used. Hickies - a dust particle sticking to the printing plate or blanket which appears on the printed sheet as a dark spot surrounded by a halo. Hot-foil - a printing technique using very thin aluminium foil in a variety of metallic colours, such as gold, silver, red and blue. The metallic foil is released from carrier base onto a substrate by the application of heat and pressure from a metal printing plate which bears the image to be hot-foiled. House style - The style of preferred spelling, punctuation, hyphenation and indentation used in a publishing house or by a particular publication to ensure consistent typesetting. H.S.W.O. - heat set web offset. A rotary printing process using heat to set the in. A cylinder transferring the image from the printing plate to blanket to paper at speeds of 30000 or more impressions per hour. Imposition - refers to the arrangement of pages on a printed sheet, which when the sheet is finally printed on both sides, folded and trimmed, will place the pages in their correct order. Impression cylinder - the cylinder of a printing machine which brings the paper into contact with the printing plate or blanket cylinder. Imprint - the name and place of the publisher and printer required by law if a publication is to be published. Sometimes accompanied by codes indicating the quantity printed, month/year of printing and an internal control number. Ink jet - A non-impact printing process in which droplets of ink are projected onto paper or other material, in a computer-determined pattern. Insert - A piece of paper or card laid between the leaves of a book and not secured in anyway. International paper sizes - the International Standards Organisation (ISO) system of paper sizes is based on a series of three sizes A, B and C. Series A is used for general printing and stationery, Series B for posters and Series C for envelopes. (For more information on sizing, please refer to Paper Sizes Menu under Print Workshop) ISBN - International Standard Book Number. A reference number given to every published work. Usually found on the back of the title page. ISDN - this is an acronym for Integrated Services Digital Network - a telephone network service which carries data, voice transmissions by digital means, not analogue. ISO9000/1/2/3/4 - international quality standard for industry defining the structure of an organisation, its obligations and authorisations, the structure of production and its ability to manufacture products or to produce services at a continuous quality level (in conformity with the standard). Ivory board - a smooth high white board used for business cards etc. Justify - the alignment of text along a margin or both margins. This is achieved by adjusting the spacing between the words and characters as necessary so that each line of text finishes at the same point. Keep standing - to hold type or plates ready for reprints. Kerning - the adjustment of spacing between certain letter pairs, A and V for example, to obtain a more pleasing appearance. Not all DTP systems can achieve this. Keyline - an outline drawn or set on artwork indicating size and position of an illustration or halftone. Keyline may be printing or non-printing. Kiss cut - to cut the top layer of a pressure sensitive sheet and not the backing. Kraft paper - a tough brown paper used for packing. Laid - paper with a watermark pattern showing the wire marks used in the paper making process. Usually used for high quality stationery. Laminate - a thin transparent plastic coating applied to paper or board to provide protection and give it a glossy finish. Laminating - The application of transparent plastic film, usually with a high-gloss finish, to the surface of printing matter to enhance its appearance and to increase its durability. Landscape - work in which the width used is greater than the height. Also used to indicate the orientation of tables or illustrations which are printed 'sideways'. See Portrait. Laser - Light Amplification by Simulated Emission of Radiation. A fine beam of light, sometimes with considerable energy, used in image-setting, colour scanning, copy scanning, plate-making, engraving and cutting and creasing form-making. Laser printer - a high quality image printing system using a laser beam to produce an image on a photosensitive drum. The image is transferred on to paper by a conventional xerographic printing process. Currently, most laser printers set at 300dpi with newer models operating at up to 600dpi. Lateral reversal - a positive or negative image transposed from left to right as in a mirror reflection of the original. Layout - a sketch of a page for printing showing the position of text and illustrations and giving general instructions. Lead or Leading - Space added between lines of type to space out text and provide visual separation of the lines. Measured in points or fractions thereof. Named after the strips of lead which used to be inserted between lines of metal type. Legend - the descriptive matter printed below an illustration, mostly referred to as a caption. Also an explanation of signs or symbols used in timetables or maps. Letraset - a proprietary name for rub-down or dry transfer lettering used in preparing artwork. Letterpress - a relief printing process in which a raised image is inked to produce an impression; the impression is then transferred by placing paper against image and applying pressure. Letterset - a printing process combining offset printing with a letterpress relief printing plate. Library picture - a picture taken from an existing library and not specially commissioned. Ligature - letters which are joined together as a single unit of type such as oe and fi. Limp cover - A flexible book cover, as distinct from a stiff board cover. Line block - a letterpress printing plate made up of solid areas and lines and without tones. Line gauge - a metal rule used by printers. pided into Picas it is 72 picas long (11.952in). Line-up table - a table with an illuminated top used for preparing and checking alignment of page layouts and paste-ups. Lining figures - numerals that align on the baseline and at the top. Lithography - a printing process based on the principle of the natural aversion of water to grease. The photographically prepared printing plate when being made is treated chemically so that the image will accept ink and reject water. Look-through - The appearance of paper or board when held up against a strong light. Loose leaf - a method of binding which allows the insertion and removal of pages for continuous updating Machine glazed (MG) - paper with a high gloss finish on one side only. Magenta - process red, one of the basic colours in process colour. Magnetic ink - a magnetized ink that can be read both by humans and by electronic machines. Used in cheque printing. Make-up - the assembling of all elements, to form the printed image. Making ready - the time spent in making ready the level of the printing surface by packing out under the form or around the impression cylinder. Manilla - a tough brown paper used to produce stationery and wrapping paper. Margins - the non printing areas of page. Mark up - copy prepared for a compositor setting out in detail all the typesetting instructions. Mask - opaque material or masking tape used to block-off an area of the artwork. Masthead - details of publisher and editorial staff usually printed on the contents page. Matt art - a coated printing paper with a dull surface. Mechanical binding - a method of binding which secures pre-trimmed leaves by the insertion of wire or plastic spirals through holes drilled in the binding edge. Mechanical tint - a pre-printed sheet of dots, lines or patterns that can be laid down on artwork for reproduction. Metallic ink - printing inks which produce an effect gold, silver, bronze or metallic colours. MG (Machine glazed) - paper with a high gloss finish on one side only. MICR - Magnetic Ink Character Recognition. Automatic sorting method used, e.g. on cheques, based on the printing of numbers in magnetic ink. Mock-up - the rough visual of a publication or design. Modem (MOdulator-DEModulator) - a device for converting digital data into audio signals and back again. Primarily used for transmitting data between computers over telephone lines. Moire pattern - the result of superimposing half-tone screens at the wrong angle thereby giving a chequered effect on the printed half-tone. Normally detected during the stage of progressive proofs. Montage - a single image formed from the assembling of several images. Mounting board - a heavy board used for mounting artwork. MS (Manuscript) - the original written or typewritten work of an author submitted for publication. Newsprint - Unsized, low quality, absorbent paper used for printing newspapers. Nipping - a stage in book binding where after sewing the sheets are pressed to expel air. OCR (Optical Character Recognition) - a special kind of scanner which provides a means of reading printed characters on documents and converting them into digital codes that can be read into a computer as actual text rather than just a picture. Offprint - a run-on or reprint of an article first published in a magazine or journal. Offset printing - A lithographic method of printing in which the ink is first transferred from the image to an offset blanket and then to the stock which may be paper, card, metal or other material. Onion skin - a translucent lightweight paper used in air mail stationery. Opacity - term used to describe the degree to which paper will show print through. Optical centre - a point above the true centre of the page which will not appear 'low' as the geometric centre does. Outline - a typeface in which the characters are formed with only the outline defined rather than from solid strokes. Overprinting - printing over an area already printed. Used to emphasise changes or alterations. Overs - additional paper required to compensate for spoilage in printing. Also used to refer to a quantity produced above the number of copies ordered. Ozalid - a trade name to describe a method of copying page proofs from paper or film. Page Printer - the more general (and accurate) name used to describe non-impact printers which produce a complete page in one action. Examples include laser, LED and LCD shutter xerographic printers, ion deposition, electro-erosion and electro-photographic printers. Pagination - the numbering of pages in a book. Pantone (PMS: Pantone Matching System) - a registered name for an ink colour matching system. Paper plate - a short run offset printing plate on which matter can be typed directly. Parallel fold - a method of folding; eg two parallel folds will produce a six page sheet. (For more information on folds, please refer to Folding Techniques Menu under Print Workshop.) Perfect binding - a common method of binding paperback books. After the printed sections having been collated, the spines will be ground off and the cover glued on. Perfecting - Printing the second side of a sheet; backing-up. Perfector - a printing press which prints both sides of the paper at one pass through the machine. Photogravure - (see Gravure) a printing process where the image is etched into the plate cylinder. The main advantage of this method of printing is the high speed, long run capability. Used mainly for mail order and magazine work. Pica - a printing industry unit of measurement. There are 12 points to a pica, one pica is approximately 0.166in. Picking - the effect of ink being too tacky and lifting fibres out of the paper. Shows up as small white dots on areas of solid colour. Pipelining - the ability of a program to flow automatically text from the end of one column or page to the beginning of the next. An extra level of sophistication can be created by allowing the flow to be re-directed to any page and not just the next available. This is ideal for US-style magazines where everything is 'Continued on...'! Point - the standard unit of type size of which there are 72 to the inch (one point is approximately 0.01383in). Point size is the measure from the top of the ascender to the bottom of the descender. Portrait - an upright image or page where the height is greater than the width. Primary colours - cyan, magenta and yellow. These three colours when mixed together with black will produce a reasonable reproduction of all other colours. Print engine - the parts of a page printer which perform the print-imaging, fixing and paper transport. In fact, everything but the controller. Process blue - the blue or cyan colour in process printing. Progressives - colour proofs taken at each stage of printing showing each colour printed singly and then superimposed on the preceding colour. Proof - A version of a document or colour illustration produced specifically for the purpose of review prior to reproduction. Proof correction marks - a standard set of signs and symbols used in copy preparation and to indicate corrections on proofs. Marks are placed both in the text and in the margin. Proportional spacing - a method of spacing whereby each character is spaced to accommodate the varying widths of letters or figures, so increasing readability. Books and magazines are set proportionally spaced, typewritten documents are generally monospaced. Pulp - the raw material used in paper making consisting mainly of wood chips, rags or other fibres. Broken down by mechanical or chemical means. Quire - 1/20th of a ream (25 sheets). Rag paper - high quality stationery made from cotton rags. Ragged - lines of type that do not start or end at the same position.Ranged left/right - successive lines of type which are of unequal length and which are aligned at either the right or left hand column. Raster Image Processor (RIP) - the hardware engine which calculates the bit-mapped image of text and graphics from a series of instructions. It may, or may not, understand a page description language but the end result should, if the device has been properly designed, be the same. Typical RIPs which aren't PDL-based include the Tall Trees JLaser, the LaserMaster and AST's TurboLaser controller. A basic page printer comes with a controller and not a RIP which goes some way to explaining the lack of control. Ream - 500 sheets of paper. Reference marks - symbols used in text to direct the reader to a footnote. Eg asterisk (*), dagger, double dagger, section mark ( ), paragraph mark ( ). Register - the correct positioning of an image especially when printing one colour on another. Register - the printing of two or more plates in juxtaposition so that they complete a design if printing on the same side of the sheet or back up accurately if printed on opposite sides of the sheet. Register marks - used in colour printing to position the paper correctly. Usually crosses or circles. Resolution - the measurement used in typesetting to express quality of output. Measured in dots per inch, the greater the number of dots, the more smoother and cleaner appearance the character/image will have. Currently Page (laser) Printers print at 300, 406 and 600dpi. Typesetting machines print at 1,200 dpi or more. Retouching - a means of altering artwork or colour separations to correct faults or enhance the image. Reverse out - to reproduce as a white image out of a solid background. Revise - indicates the stages at which corrections have been incorporated from earlier proofs and new proofs submitted. Eg First revise, second revise. Right reading - a positive or negative which reads from left to right. Rotary press - a web or reel fed printing press which uses a curved printing plate mounted on the plate cylinder. Rough - a preliminary sketch of a proposed design. Royal - a size of printing paper 20in x 25in (508 x 635mm). Runaround (see also Text wrap) - the ability within a program to run text around a graphic image within a document, without the need to adjust each line manually. Running head - a line of type at the top of a page which repeats a heading. S/S (Same size) - an instruction to reproduce to the same size as the original. Saddle stitching - a method of binding where the folded pages are stitched through the spine from the outside, using wire staples. Usually limited to 64 pages size. Scale - the means within a program to reduce or enlarge the amount of space an image will occupy. Some programs maintain the aspect ratio between width and height whilst scaling, thereby avoiding distortion. Scaling - a means of calculating the amount of enlargement or reduction necessary to accommodate a photograph within the area of a design. Scamp - a sketch of a design showing the basic concept. Score - A crease put on paper to help it fold better Screen-printing - Often called silk screen printing from the material formerly used for the screen. A stencil process with the printing and non-printing areas on one surface. The printing (image) area is open and produced by various forms of stencil. The substrate is placed under the screen and ink is passed across the top of the screen and forced through the open (printing) areas on to the substrate below. Section - A folded sheet of paper forming part of a book; sections are sometimes made of insetted folded sheets of four, eight sixteen or more pages. Security paper - paper incorporating special features (dyes, watermarks etc) for use on cheques. Set off - the accidental transfer of the printed image from one sheet to the back of another. Set solid - type set without leading (line spacing) between the lines. Type is often set with extra space; eg 9 point set on 10 point. Sew - To fasten the sections of a book together by passing thread through the centre fold of each section in such a way as to secure it to the slips; in distinction from stitch. Sheet - a single piece of paper. In poster work refers to the number of Double Crown sets in a full size poster. Sheet fed - a printing press which prints single sheets of paper, not reels. Sheetwise - a method of printing a section. Half the pages from a section are imposed and printed. The remaining half of the pages are then printed on the other side of the sheet. Show-through - see opacity. Shrink wrap - Method of packing printed products by surrounding them with plastic, then shrinking by heat. Side heading - a subheading set flush into the text at the left edge. Side stabbed or stitched - the folded sections of a book are stabbed through with wire staples at the binding edge, prior to the covers being drawn on. Side stitching - To stitch through the side from front to back at the binding edge with thread or wire. (See stabbing. Sidebar - a vertical bar positioned usually on the right hand side of the screen. Signature - a letter or figure printed on the first page of each section of a book and used as a guide when collating and binding. Sixteen sheet - a poster size measuring 120in x 80in (3050mm x 2030mm). Size - a solution based on starch or casein which is added to the paper to reduce ink absorbency. Skin packaging - Method of packaging by which thin, clear plastic is shrunk onto an object backed by printed card. Slurring - a smearing of the image, caused by paper slipping during the impression stage. Small caps - a set of capital letters which are smaller than standard and are equal in size to the lower case letters for that typesize. Snap-to (guide or rules) - a WYSIWYG program feature for accurately aligning text or graphics. The effect is exercised by various non-printing guidelines such as column guides, margin guides which automatically places the text or graphics in the correct position flush to the column guide when activated by the mouse. The feature is optional and can be turned off. Soft back/cover - a book bound with a paper back cover. Soft or discretionary hyphen - a specially coded hyphen which is only displayed when formatting of the hyphenated word puts it at the end of a line. Spine - the binding edge at the back of a book. Spoilage - planned paper waste for all printing operations. SRA - a paper size in the series of ISO international paper sizes slightly larger than the A series allowing the printer extra space to bleed. Stabbing - to stitch with wire through the side of gathered work at the binding edge. Stet - used in proof correction work to cancel a previous correction. From the Latin; 'let it stand'. Stitch - to sew, staple or otherwise fasten together by means of thread or wire the leaves or signatures of a book or pamphlet. The different styles of stitching are; double stitch, where two loops of a single thread are fastened in the centre of the fold. Machine stitch, where a lock stitch is made; saddle or saddle-back stitch, where the centre of the fold is placed across the saddle in the machine and wire staples are driven through and clenched on the inside, side stitch, where the thread or wire is stitched through the side of the fold; single stitch, where a single loop is drawn through the centre and tied; wire stitch, in which staples are made, inserted and clenched by a machine from a continuous piece of wire, as in the saddle back stitch; as distinct from sew. Stochastic screening - also known as FM (Frequency Modulated) screening. With conventional halftone screening, the variable dot size formed, creates the optical illusion of various tonal values; however, the dot centre pitch distance is constant. In the case of FM screening systems, the dots are randomly distributed to create this tonal change illusion. The greater the number of dots located within a specific area, the darker the resultant tone. The dots produced in this way are usually smaller than conventional halftone dots, resulting in improved definition, although greater care and attention to detail is required in plate-making stage. Strawboard - a thicker board made from straw pulp, used in bookwork and in the making of envelopes and cartons. Not suitable for printing. Strike-through - the effect of ink soaking through the printed sheet. Style sheet - a collection of tags specifying page layout styles, paragraph settings and type specifications which can be set up by the user and saved for use in other documents. Some page makeup programs, such as Ventura, come with a set of style sheets. Subscript - the small characters set below the normal letters or figures. Supercalendered paper - a smooth finished paper with a polished appearance, produced by rolling the paper between calenders. Examples of this are high gloss and art papers. Superscript - the small characters set above the normal letters or figures. Swatch - a colour sample. Tabloid - a page half the size of a broadsheet. Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) - a common format for interchanging digital information, generally associated with greyscale or bitmap data. Tags - the various formats which make up a style sheet- paragraph settings, margins and columns, page layouts, hyphenation and justification, widow and orphan control and automatic section numbering. Template - a standard layout usually containing basic details of the page dimensions. Text wrap - see Runaround. Thermography - a print finishing process producing a raised image imitating die stamping. The process takes a previously printed image which before the ink is dry is dusted with a resinous powder. The application of heat causes the ink and powder to fuse and a raised image is formed. Thirty two sheet - a poster size measuring 120in x 160in (3048mm x 4064mm). Threaded or Chained (US) - see Pipelining. Thumbnails - the first ideas or sketches of a designer noted down for future reference. Tints - mechanical shading in line areas, normally available in 5% steps from 5% to 95%. Tip in - the separate insertion of a single page into a book either during or after binding by pasting one edge. Trapping - the ability to print one ink over the other. Trim - the cutting of the finished product to the correct size. Marks are incorporated on the printed sheet to show where the trimming is to be made. Twin wire - paper which has an identical smooth finish on both sides. Typeface - the raised surface carrying the image of a type character cast in metal. Also used to refer to a complete set of characters forming a family in a particular design or style. Typo (US) - an abbreviation for typographical error. An error in the typeset copy. Universal Copyright Convention (UCC) - gives protection to authors or originators of text, photographs or illustrations etc, to prevent use without permission or acknowledgment. The publication should carry the copyright mark c, the name of the originator and the year of publication. Up - printing two or three up means printing multiple copies of the same image on the same sheet. UV coating - liquid laminate bonded and cured with ultraviolet light. Environmentally friendly. Varnishing - to apply oil, synthetic, spirit, cellulose or water varnish to printed matter by hand or machine to enhance its appearance or increase its durability. Vellum - the treated skin of a calf used as a writing material. The name is also used to describe a thick creamy book paper. Vignette - this term usually refers to a single dot pattern that may start at 50% dot and gradually decrease to say 5% in a smooth graduation. Watermark - an impression incorporated in the paper making process showing the name of the paper and/or the company logo. Web - a continuous roll of printing paper used on web-fed presses. Web Offset - reel-fed offset litho printing. Three main systems of presses exist blanket-to-blanket in which two plate and two blanket cylinders per unit print and perfect the web of paper or board; three-cylinder system in which plate, blanket and impression cylinders operate in the usual manner to print one side of the paper or board; and satellite or planetary systems in which two, three or four plate and blanket cylinders are arranged around a common impression cylinders to print one side of the web in several colours. Weight - the degree of boldness or thickness of a letter or font. Wire - the wire mesh used at the wet end of the paper making process. The wire determines the textures of the paper. Wire stitching - see saddle or side stitching. Woodfree paper - made from chemical pulp only with size added. Supplied calendered or supercalendered. Word wrap - in word processing, the automatic adjustment of the number of words on a line of text to match the margin settings. The carriage returns set up by this method are termed "soft", as against "hard" carriage returns resulting from the return key being pressed. Work and tumble - a method of printing where pages are again imposed together. The sheet is then printed on one side with the sheet being turned or tumbled from front to rear to print the opposite side. Work and turn - a method of printing where pages are imposed in one form or assembled on one film. One side is then printed and the sheet is then turned over and printed from the other edge using the same form. The finished sheet is then cut to produce two complete copies. Wove - a finely textured paper without visible wire marks. WYSIWYG - what-you-see-is-what-you-get (pronounced "wizzywig") - used to describe systems that preview full pages on the screen with text and graphics. The term can however be a little misleading due to difference in the resolution of the computer screen and that of the page printer.